our research

THE FOLLOWING LIST IS PART OF OUR RESEARCH


-  Tensions and Contentions, An Examination of Electronic Gaming Issues in Canada, Garry J.Smith, Colin S. Campbell


- VLT gambling in Alberta: A preliminary analysis - GJ Smith, HJ Wynne - Lethbridge: Alberta Gaming


-  GAMBLING IN ALBERTA: HISTORY, CURRENT STATUS, AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS Robert J. Williams Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, and Coordinator, Alberta Gaming Research Institute University of Lethbridge,  Yale D. Belanger Associate Professor Native American Studies University of Lethbridge,  Jennifer N. Arthur Project Manager & M.Sc. Candidate University of Lethbridge, 


- Slot Machine Structural Characteristics: Creating Near Misses Using High Award Symbol Ratios by Kevin A. Harrigan


- Gambling in Canada-From Vice to Disease to Responsibility: A Negotiated History"- CS Campbell, GJ Smith 


- Near Wins Prolong Gambling on a Video Lottery Terminal - Denis Côté, Anne Caron, Jonathan Aubert, Véronique Desrochers and Robert Ladouceur


- Structural Characteristics of Video Lotteries: Effects of a Stopping Device on Illusion of Control and Gambling Persistence - Robert Ladouceur and Serge Sévigny


-  Harm minimization in relation to gambling on electronic gaming machines - A Blaszczynski, L Sharpe… - A submission to the …, 2003 - austgamingcouncil.org.au


- Structural Changes to Electronic Gaming Machines as Effective Harm Minimization Strategies for Non-Problem and Problem Gamblers - Louise Sharpe, Michael Walker, Maree-Jo Coughlan, Kirsten Enersen and Alex Blaszczynski


- Random-ratio schedules of reinforcement: The role of early wins and unreinforced trials John Haw, School of Psychology, University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. E-mail: john.haw@uws.edu.au http://www.austgamingcouncil.org.au/images/pdf/eLibrary/19180.pdf


- B.F.Skinner 1904-199 Dr. C. George Boeree http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html

Good article about Skinner and his research with ‘schedule of reinforcement!


- The relationship between reinforcement and gaming machine choice Authors John Haw, Southern Cross University http://epubs.scu.edu.au/tourism_pubs/112/


- Lottery Gambling and Addiction – An overview of European Research – Mark D. Griffiths and Richar T.A. Wood


- Unbalanced Reel Gaming Machines – Tim Faulkner with co-author Roger Horbay – To find article go to: http://stoppredatorygambling.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Falkiner_Horbay_Unbalanced_Reels_Gam_Mach_2006.pdf


- A description of problem gamblers in Alberta : a secondary analysis of the Gambling and problem gambling in Alberta study - 1994 https://prism.ucalgary.ca/handle/1880/41358


- Symbols presentation modality as a determinant of gambling behavior. Ladouceur R, Sévigny S. Source Department of Psychology, Laval University, Québec, Canada.


- Dopamine modulates reward expectancy during performance of a slot machine task in rats: evidence for a 'near-miss' effect. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Apr;36(5):913-25. Epub 2011 Jan 5. Winstanley CA, Cocker PJ, Rogers RD. Source Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


- Gambling severity predicts midbrain response to near-miss outcomes. Chase HW, Clark L. Source School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.


- The following is a great article about an interview with a manufacturer of EGMs titled ‘The Tug of the Newfangled Slot machines’: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/09/magazine/09SLOTS.html?pagewanted=print


- Dissociable Neural Responses in Human Reward Systems Rebecca Elliott1, Karl J. Friston1, and Raymond J. Dolan1,2 - The following is an actual study of brain activity regarding Reward-dependent behavior in humans. To find article, http://neuro.cjb.net/content/20/16/6159.full


-  Why is slot machine gambling considered "The Crack Cocaine" of Gambling Addiction? By Michelle Tee 2008 


-  Learn what makes slot machines tick at Canadian casinos,On January 4, 2016  posted by Grameister777 

 

- The maximum rewards at the minimum price: Reinforcement rates and payback percentages in multi-line slot machines Kevin Harrigan1, Michael Dixon1,2 Vance MacLaren1,2 Karen Collins1 Jonathan Fugelsang1,2 http://jgi.camh.net/doi/abs/10.4309/jgi.2011.26.3


-  The poker machine state: Dilemmas in ethics, economics and governance- J Doughney - 2002 - Common Ground Publ.


 -The ethics of charitable gambling: A survey J Azmier, R Roach - 2000 - en.scientificcommons.org


- Ethical and policy considerations in the spread of commercial gambling -WR Eadington - 1993 - Institute for the Study of Gambling …


- Cognitive therapy for problem gambling - T Toneatto - Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 2002 - Elsevier


- WHAT DOES ECONOMICS TEACH US ABOUT THE REGULATION OF MACHINE GAMBLING?* by John Lepper and Stephen Creigh-Tyte - Presentation to The European Association for the Study of Gambling Malmo 29th June to 2nd July 2005 …..All the more surprising, then, to find that most empirical investigations of machine gambling have been conducted by psychologists rather than economists. Even more startling are the results of these investigations which generally find that individual personality and mental states are not associated with the extent of machine gambling whereas the characteristics of the machine and expectations of monetary reward are. On the face of it, the tools of economics seem to hold greater promise of explaining why people gamble on machines to the extent they do than those of psychology. …..In this paper, we review some of the recent empirical work into machine gambling. We review some of the regulations which currently exist and propose a method of comparing them. We then deduce which forms of regulation are likely to prove more effective than others. This report talks about:-enticement and reward and how ‘player behavior’ is affected machines (p.2)-reinforcement and repetition (p.3) -machines remove rational choice making (p.4)-speed of machines greatly impacts the money players lose (p.9)-behavioral factors of the machines (p.11-17)-EGM machines readily re-programmable to meet changing demand and the regulatory environment (p18)


- PAR Sheets, probabilities, and slot machine play: Implications for problem and non-problem gambling

Kevin A. Harrigan and Mike Dixon, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: 

Abstract: Through the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, we obtained design documents, called PAR Sheets, for slot machine games that are in use in Ontario, Canada. From our analysis of these PAR Sheets and observations from playing and watching others play these games, we report on the design of the structural characteristics of Ontario slots and their implications for problem gambling. We discuss characteristics such as speed of play, stop buttons, bonus modes, hand-pays, nudges, near misses, how some wins are in fact losses, and how two identical looking slot machines can have very different payback percentages. We then discuss how these characteristics can lead to multi-level reinforcement schedules (different reinforcement schedules for frequent and infrequent gamblers playing the same game) and how they may provide an illusion of control and contribute in other ways to irrational thinking, all of which are known risk factors for problem gambling.


- Psychophysiological and subjective arousal during gambling in pathological and non-pathological video lottery -gamblers - MD KATHERINE, CH DAVID - International Gambling Studies, 2003 - Taylor & Francis


- Identifying problem gamblers at the gambling venue: Finding combinations of high confidence indicators -T Schellinck, T Schrans - Gambling Research: Journal of the …, 2004 - search.informit.com.au


- Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling - M Dickerson, E Baron 


- ADDICTION-ABINGDON-, 2000 - Wiley Online Library - The Biopsychosocial Consequences of Pathological Gambling Timothy W. Fong,


- Pathological gambling: biopsychosocial dimension and treatment -N el-Guebaly, D Hodgins - Edmonton, AB: Alberta Gaming Research Institute, 2000 - The 11 year incidence of gambling problems among drug users recruited from the St-LB Cottler, RM Cunningham-Williams - Louis ECA Study. The Wager, 2000


- The effect of treatment of pathological gamblers referred to a behavioural psychotherapy unit: II-Outcome of three kinds of behavioural intervention -M Battersby, B Tolchard - Towards, 2000


- The Sydney Laval Universities Gambling Screen: Preliminary data - A Blaszczynski, R Ladouceur… - Addiction Research & …, 2008 - informahealthcare.com


- Problems in measuring the effectiveness of cognitive therapy for pathological gambling - MB Walker - Journal of Gambling Studies, 2005 – Springer


- Prevention of problem gambling: A comprehensive review of the evidence

RJ Williams, BL West… - Guelph, Ontario: Report …, 2007 - darwin.psy.ulaval.ca


- Gambling and crime in Western Canada: Exploring myth and reality - GJ Smith, HJ Wynne - 1999 - dspace.ucalgary.ca


- The legalization of gambling in Canada - CS Campbell, TF Hartnagel, GJ Smith - 2005 - dalspace.library.dal.ca


- Gambling and criminal behaviour: An analysis of local and district court files - P Crofts - 2002 - Institute of Criminology, University of…


- Do casinos attract criminals? A study at the Canadian-US border - F Piscitelli, JS Albanese - Journal of Contemporary Criminal …, 2000 - ccj.sagepub.com


-Compulsive gambling and the law: from sin to vice to disease - IN Rose - Journal of Gambling Studies, 1988 – Springer


- Canadian gambling: Trends and public policy issues CS Campbell, GJ Smith - The annals of the American Academy of Political …, 1998 – 


- Examining police records to assess gambling impacts: A study of gambling-related crime in the City of Edmonton - GJ Smith, HJ Wynne, TF Hartnagel - 2003 - assembly.ab.ca


- An assessment of member awareness, perceived adequacy and perceived effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies in Sydney clubs - N Hing - 2003 - epubs.scu.edu.au


- Quebec lawsuit a warning to Alta researcher-D Thorne – 2002


- Native Gaming and Gambling in Canada - J Kiedrowski - 2001 - A report prepared for the Department


- Legalized gambling and its potential impact on police services - R McDonald - 9th annual Canadian Association of Police Boards …, 1998


- Fall Report, vol. 2 - SP Auditor - Regina, SK, 2001 


- Ontario's organized crime section—illegal gambling unit: its evolution and accomplishments –L Moodie - Gambling, Law Enforcement and Justice System Issues …, 2002


- No Dice: Violations of the Criminal Code's Gaming Exceptions by Provincial Governments -TIW Patrick - Crim. LQ, 2000 – Hein


- Non-profits and gambling expansion: The British Columbia experience - CS Campbell, Canada West Foundation - 2000 - en.scientificcommons.org


- Risky business: A few provocations on the regulation of electronic gaming machines - C Livingstone, R Woolley - International Gambling Studies, 2007 - Taylor & Francis


- Canadian gambling legislation: the social origins of legalization - CS Campbell - 1994 - en.scientificcommons.org


- What is a crime? A secular answer - J Brodeur, G Ouellet - What is a Crime, 2004


- Risky business: America's fascination with gambling - RM Pavalko - 1999 - getcited.org


- The seductiveness of poker machines - M Walker - Keynote address at the 13th Annual Conference of the …, 2003 - nags.org.au


- The evolving contribution of gambling research to addiction theory - M DICKERSON - Addiction, 2003 - Wiley Online Library


- Measurement and modelling of impaired control: implications for policy - M Dickerson - Insight Problem Gambling Conference, 2004


- Psychological Causes of Problem Gambling: Longitudinal Study of at Risk Recreational EGM Players - M Dickerson, JE Haw, L Shepherd - 2003 - University of Western Sydney-


- Hit the jackpot? You won't need a bucket. C Palmeri - Business Week, 2003 - csa.com


- Cashless gaming - D Berger, I Hauk - Retrieved July, 2002


- Socially responsible and accountable gambling in the public interest - jgi.camh.net › Journal of Gambling Issues › Issue 25, June 2011 by G Smith - 2011


- Proactive in making gambling safer for consumers (Hancock, Schellinck, & Schrans, 2008; Miers, 2008; Livingstone & Woolley, 2007). .... For instance, in 1998 when Alberta communities held referenda on whether to allow or ...


- Parameters for Safer Gambling Behavior: Examining the Empirical Research - Allyson J. Peller, Debi A. LaPlante and Howard J. Shaffer


- Awareness Promotion About Excessive Gambling Among Video Lottery Retailers - Robert Ladouceur, Claude Boutin, Céline Doucet, Michel Dumont, Martin Provencher, Isabelle Giroux and Christiane Boucher


- Responsible Gambling: General Principles and Minimal Requirements - Alex Blaszczynski, Peter Collins, Davis Fong, Robert Ladouceur and Lia Nower,


- Harm Reduction and Electronic Gambling Machines: Does this Pair Make a Happy Couple or is Divorce Foreseen?


 - Canadian Bulletin of Medical History/Bulletin …, 2003 - cbmh.ca


- A science-based framework for responsible gambling: The Reno model - A Blaszczynski, R Ladouceur, HJ Shaffer - Journal of Gambling Studies, 2004 – Springer


- Responsible gambling features of card-based technologies - S Nisbet - International Journal of Mental Health & …, 2005 - austgamingcouncil.org.au


- Gaming Machine Accessibility and Use in Suburban Canberra: A detailed Analysis of the Tuggeranong Valley D Marshall, ACT Gambling - 2004 - en.scientificcommons.org


- Gambling in Canada 2005: Statistics and context - JJ Azmier - 2005 - dspace1.acs.ucalgary.ca


- Australasian gambling review (1992–2008)[electronic - PH Delfabbro - 1992 - jogoremoto.pt


- Designing a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Gambling in Alberta: Rationale, Methods, and Challenges Nady el-Guebaly, David M. Casey, David C. Hodgins, Garry J. Smith, Robert J. Williams, Don P. chopflocher, Robert T. Wood ...Journal of Gambling Studies December 2008, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 479-504


- The efficacy of responsible gambling measures in NSW clubs: the gamblers' perspective - N Hing - School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Papers, 2004 - epubs.scu.edu.au


- A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON ASPECTS OF PROBLEM GAMBLING - by M Abbott - 2004 –


- Literature Review – Computer-Mediated Communication and ...


- Scoping Study for a UK Gambling Act, 2005 Impact Assessment ...


- Lotteries Literature Review: Final Report - Scholarly Commons


- Scoping Study for a UK Gambling Act, 2005 Impact Assessment ...


- A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON ASPECTS OF PROBLEM GAMBLING


- Scoping Study for a UK Gambling Act_ 2005 Impact Assessment ..


- The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on the Service Performance ...


- Cashless And Card-based Technologies In ... - Gambling Commission - (Schellinck and Schrans, 2007


- Lotteries Literature Review: Final Report - Scholarly Commons –


- Measuring problem gambling: Assessment of three prevalence screens-J McMillen, M Wenzel - International Gambling Studies, 2006 - Taylor & Francis


- Australian Gambling Statistics 1975–76 to 2001–02 - Tasmanian Gaming Commission - Tasmanian Gaming Commission, Hobart, 2003


- What is a cohort and why - K Boehnke - An old question revisited. In LJ Crockett (Ed.), 2000


- Definition and Incidence of Problem Gambling, Including the Socio-economic Distributions of Gamblers - MG Dickerson, V Casino, G Authority - 1997 - Victorian Casino and Gaming


- The gambling environment and gambler behaviour: Evidence from Richmond-Tweed, Australia - D Marshall - International Gambling Studies, 2005 - Taylor & Francis


-Alcohol consumption and self-control of gambling behaviour- E Baron, M Dickerson - Journal of Gambling Studies, 1999 – Springer


- The changing landscape of Indigenous gambling in Northern Australia: current knowledge and future directions - M Young, T Barnes, M Stevens… - International Gambling …, 2007 - Taylor & Francis


- Harm minimization strategies in gambling: An overview of international initiatives & interventions - A Blaszczynski - Melbourne: Australian Gaming Council, 2001 - austgamingcouncil.org.au


- 2003 Victorian longitudinal community attitudes survey - J McMillen, D Marshall, E Ahmed, M Wenzel - 2004 - en.scientificcommons.org


- The evolving market structures of gambling: Case studies modelling the socioeconomic assignment of gaming machines in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia - DC Marshall, RGV Baker - Journal of Gambling Studies, 2002 – Springer


- Gambling: promoting a culture of responsibility - I Pricing, R Tribunal - 2004 - ipart.nsw.gov.au


- The proportion of Ontario gambling revenue derived from problem gamblers - RJ Williams, RT Wood - Canadian Public Policy, 2007 - UT Press


- Gambling and the Public Interest? - Canada West Foundation, GJ Smith, J Azmier - 1997 - Calgary: Canada West Foundation


- Betting the house: Winners, losers and the politics of Canada's gambling obsession - B Hutchinson - 1999 - epe.lac-bac.gc.ca


- Impact of the format, arrangement and availability of electronic gaming machines outside casinos on gambling - R Ladouceur, C Jacques, S Sevigny… - International Gambling …, 2005 – Routledge


- Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Alberta using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index - GJ Smith, HJ Wynne… - 2002 - Alberta Gaming Research Institute


- The Lottery--from Jacques Cartier's Day to Modern Times: Sidelights on the History of Lotteries in Québec -M Labrosse - 1985 - [Montréal]: Stanké


- The Productivity Commission's gambling inquiry: 3 years on - G Banks - Available at SSRN 401721, 2003 - papers.ssrn.com


- Measuring problem gambling in Canada - J Ferris, H Wynne, E Single - Final Report-Phase I. The Inter-Provincial …, 1999 - ccsa.ca


- The victorian gambling screen: Project report - DI Ben-Tovim - 2001 - Gambling Research Panel


- The Distribution of Electronic Gaming Machines (EGMs) and Gambling-related Harm in Metropolitan Adelaide - PH Delfabbro - a report for the Independent Gaming Authority, …, 2003


- Brief Communications Analysis of a Casino's Self-Exclusion Program - R Ladouceur, C Jacques, I Giroux, F Ferland… - Journal of Gambling …, 2000 – Springer


- The use of ATMs in ACT gaming venues: An empirical study - J McMillen, D Marshall, L Murphy, ACT Gambling - 2004 - en.scientificcommons.org


- The Ontario casino project: a case study - D Alfieri - Gambling in Canada: The Bottom Line, Criminology …, 1994 Cited by 8 Related articles


- Seven years on: A follow-up study of frequent and problem gamblers living in the community - MW Abbott, RA Volberg, MM Williams - 1999 - austgamingcouncil.org.au


- A Database on Australia's Gambling Industries - AG Council - 2004 - Australian Gaming Council.


- Gambling in Canada: An Overview - JJ Azmier - Canada West Foundation, Calgary, AB, 2001


- The social economy of poker machine gambling in Victoria - C Livingstone - International Gambling Studies, 2001 - Taylor & Francis


- Triumph, tragedy or trade-off?: considering the impact of gambling - JJ Azmier, R Kelley, P Todosichuk - 2001 - dspace1.acs.ucalgary.ca


- Exploring the Limits of" responsible Gambling": Harm Minimisation Or Consumer Protection? - MG Dickerson - 2003 - uss-mass.org


- Evaluation of electronic gaming machine harm minimisation in Victoria - S Rodda, M Cowie - Report prepared for the Victorian Department of Justice …, 2005


- The assessment of the impact of the reconfiguration on electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for problem gambling - A Blaszczynski, M Walker, L Sharpe - 2001 - gamingta.com.au


- The relevance and role of gaming machine games and game features on the play of problem gamblers - C Livingstone, R Woolley, T Zazryn… - Prepared for …, 2008 - en.scientificcommons.org


- Identifying Problem Gamblers in Gambling Venues: Final Report - P Delfabbro, A Osborn, M Nevile, L Skelt, J McMillen - 2008 - chelt.anu.edu.au –


- What if there were no problem gamblers? M Dickerson -published at www.responsiblegamblingcouncil.org


- Impaired control over gambling in gaming machine and off‐course gamblers - J O'Connor, M Dickerson - Addiction, 2002 - Wiley Online Library


- An operant analysis of gaming machine play - J Haw - Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Macarthur: …, 2000 - en.scientificcommons.org


- Preventing the incidence and harm of gambling problems - L Dickson-Gillespie, L Rugle, R Rosenthal… - The Journal of Primary …, 2008 – Springer –


- The scale of gambling choices: preliminary development of an instrument to measure impaired control of gambling behaviour - E Baron, M Dickerson… - High stakes in …, 1995 - National Association of Gambling …


- Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: Effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers - P Loba, SH Stewart, RM Klein, JR Blackburn - Journal of Gambling Studies, 2001 – Springer


- Problem gambling and gaming machine density: socio-spatial analysis of three Victorian localities - J McMillen, B Doran - International Gambling Studies, 2006 - Taylor & Francis


- The impact of video lottery game speed on gamblers - R Ladouceur, S Sévigny - Journal of Gambling Issues, 2006 - jgi.camh.net


Rapid onset of pathological gambling in machine gamblers - RB Breen, M Zimmerman - Journal of Gambling Studies, 2002 – Springer


- Fruit machine gambling: The importance of structural characteristics - M Griffiths - Journal of gambling studies, 1993 - Springer


- Narrowing of attention and dissociation in pathological video lottery gamblers - KM Diskin, DC Hodgins - Journal of Gambling Studies, 1999 – Springer


- The psychology of the near‐miss (revisited): A comment on Delfabbro & Winefield (1999) - MD Griffiths - British Journal of Psychology, 1999 - Wiley Online Library


- Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling - Mark Griffiths


- The Psychology of the Fruit Machine: The Role of Structural Characteristics (Revisited) - Jonathan Parke and Mark Griffiths


- Fruit machine addiction in adolescence: A case study- Mark Griffiths


- Pre-commitment in gambling: a review of the empirical evidence by R Ladouceur – 2012


- Professor Peter McKenna from University of PEI- author of book titled TERMINAL DAMAGE - To find the following article, copy and paste in google bar: http://www.iga.sa.gov.au/pdf/0801/Final%20report.Print.Feb08.pdf


- Decision-making during gambling: an integration of cognitive and psychobiological approaches. Clark L. Source Department of Experimental Psychology, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK. lc260@cam.ac.uk


- Haloperidol modifies instrumental aspects of slot machine gambling in pathological gamblers and healthy controls. Tremblay AM, Desmond RC, Poulos CX, Zack M. Source Clinical Neuroscience Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, Canada.


- Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal. Ladouceur R, Sévigny S, Blaszczynski A, O'Connor K, Lavoie ME. Source School of Psychology, Laval University, Québec, Canada. Robert.Ladouceur@psy.ulaval.ca


- ‘Supplementary Memorandum from the Royal College of Psychiatrists (DGB 106)’- http://www.parliament.the-stationery office.co.uk/pa/jt200304/jtselect/jtgamb/63/4010807.htm This report is great information about the Psychological effects of gambling (p.2)